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<p> </p>http://pranakishore.com/blog/wwwonepagehindusimwordpresscomSat, 12 Apr 2014 00:00:00 -0700Magic Number 108 in all Religions
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<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #000080;"><strong>The Magic number 108</strong> <span style="color: #003366;">in all religions</span></span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">The Indian Subcontinent rosary or set of mantra counting has 108 beads. 108 has been a sacred number in the Indian Subcontinent for a very long time. This number is explained in many different ways.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">The ancient Indians were excellent mathematicians and 108 may be the product of a precise mathematical operation (e.g. 1 power 1 x 2 power 2 x 3 power 3 = 108) which was thought to have special numerological significance.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Powers of 1, 2, and 3 in math: 1 to 1st power=1; 2 to 2nd power=4 (2x2); 3 to 3rd power=27 (3x3x3). 1x4x27=108</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Sanskrit alphabet: There are 54 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Each has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti. 54 times 2 is 108.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Sri Yantra: On the Sri Yantra there are marmas where three lines intersect, and there are 54 such intersections. Each intersections has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti qualities. 54 x 2 equals 108. Thus, there are 108 points that define the Sri Yantra as well as the human body.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">9 times 12: Both of these numbers have been said to have spiritual significance in many traditions. 9 times 12 is 108. Also, 1 plus 8 equals 9. That 9 times 12 equals 108.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Heart Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are like energy intersections called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Time: Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Astrology: There are 12 constellations, and 9 arc segments called namshas or chandrakalas. 9 times 12 equals 108. Chandra is moon, and kalas are the divisions within a whole.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Planets and Houses: In astrology, there are 12 houses and 9 planets. 12 times 9 equals 108.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Gopis of Krishna: In the Krishna tradition, there were said to be 108 gopis or maid servants of Krishna.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">1, 0, and 8: 1 stands for God or higher Truth, 0 stands for emptiness or completeness in spiritual practice, and 8 stands for infinity or eternity.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Sun and Earth: The diameter of the sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Numerical scale: The 1 of 108, and the 8 of 108, when added together equals 9, which is the number of the numerical scale, i.e. 1, 2, 3 ... 10, etc., where 0 is not a number.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Smaller divisions: The number 108 is divided, such as in half, third, quarter, or twelfth, so that some malas have 54, 36, 27, or 9 beads.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Islam: The number 108 is used in Islam to refer to God.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Jain: In the Jain religion, 108 are the combined virtues of five categories of holy ones, including 12, 8, 36, 25, and 27 virtues respectively.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Sikh: The Sikh tradition has a mala of 108 knots tied in a string of wool, rather than beads.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Chinese: The Chinese Buddhists and Taoists use a 108 bead mala, which is called su-chu, and has three dividing beads, so the mala is divided into three parts of 36 each.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Stages of the soul: Said that Atman, the human soul or center goes through 108 stages on the journey.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Meru: This is a larger bead, not part of the 108. It is not tied in the sequence of the other beads. It is the quiding bead, the one that marks the beginning and end of the mala.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Dance: There are 108 forms of dance in the Indian traditions.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Pythagorean: The nine is the limit of all numbers, all others existing and coming from the same. ie: 0 to 9 is all one needs to make up an infinite amount of numbers.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">We have listed below 108 Upanishads as per the list contained in the Muktikopanishad . We have arranged them in four categories according to the particular Veda to which each of them belong.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Rigveda(10): Aitareya , Atmabodha, Kaushitaki, Mudgala, Nirvana, Nadabindu, Akshamaya, Tripura, Bahvruka, Saubhagyalakshmi.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Yajurveda(50): Katha, Taittiriya , Isavasya , Brihadaranyaka, Akshi, Ekakshara, Garbha, Prnagnihotra, Svetasvatara, Sariraka, Sukarahasya, Skanda, Sarvasara, Adhyatma, Niralamba, Paingala, Mantrika, Muktika, Subala, Avadhuta, Katharudra, Brahma, Jabala, Turiyatita, Paramahamsa, Bhikshuka, Yajnavalkya, Satyayani, Amrtanada, Amrtabindu, Kshurika, Tejobindu, Dhyanabindu, Brahmavidya, YogakundalinI, Yogatattva, Yogasikha, Varaha, Advayataraka, Trisikhibrahmana, mandalabrahmana, Hamsa, Kalisantaraaa, Narayana, Tarasara, Kalagnirudra, Dakshinamurti, Pancabrahma, Rudrahrdaya, SarasvatIrahasya.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">SamaVeda(16): Kena, Chandogya, Mahat, Maitrayani, Vajrasuci, Savitri, Aruneya, Kundika, Maitreyi, Samnyasa, Jabaladarsana, Yogacudaman, Avyakta, Vasudevai, Jabali, Rudrakshajabala.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Atharvaveda(32): Prasna , Mandukya, Mundaka, Atma, Surya, Narada-Parivrajakas, Parabrahma, Paramahamsa-Parivrajakas, Pasupatha-Brahma, Mahavakya, Sandilya, Krishna, Garuda, Gopalatapani, Tripadavibhuti-mahnarayana, Dattatreya, Kaivalya, NrsimhatapanI, Ramatapani, Ramarahasya, HayagrIva, Atharvasikha, Atharvasira, Ganapati, Brhajjabala, Bhasmajabala, Sarabha, Annapurna, TripuratapanI, Devi, Bhavana, SIta.</span></span></p>
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<p><span style="color: #ffffff;"><br /><strong>The Significance of the number 108</strong></span></p>
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<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">We must agree that all measuring systems are merely reference frames. They give us a starting point. It doesn’t really matter if you call them farenheits or cycles. All science is based on fundamental assumptions of the mechanics of this universe. Yet, these assumptions, if correct, connect like building blocks.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Much in the same way, the number ‘108’ is just a reference frame. It is symbolic of a bigger picture: that of humility. When devotees recite 108 Hanuman Chalisas, in their minds they believe, they are proving their love for God, and that there is in fact a need to prove their love. When devotees assign a 108 names to Shri Ganesh, they are once again gauging their devotion through numbers. This, of course, may be considered unreasonable, since it suggests that 108 chants are more effective than 109 chants. How do they know this? Have they proved it? Is 108 the magic number of the universe? No, it is not! It is a reference frame. What is important is that a system is imposed to guide us through the fundamental struggles encountered in any evolutional process. Otherwise, chaos and anarchy follow and nothing gets done.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Having said that, I will show you justifications from a few subcultures in India. Obviously, I consider the Vedic rationale to be the most consistent with the fundamental laws of this universe. The others have borrowed and built, but it still smells of Vedic beginnings.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">In present times, we can find many rationales for the proliferation of ‘108’ throughout our scriptures. In fact, this number seems to garner its unfair share of attention from myriad cults and faith systems around the world. I will give you a few justifications that have been brought to my attention.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">JYOTISH SHASTRA {VEDIC SYSTEM} <br />This universe was created by the five elements: space, air, fire, water and earth. From these elements came the three attributes: Raj {birth}, Sat {protection} and Tam {destruction or death.}</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">The mathematical or geographical evidence proves that one circle has 360 degrees in space. Why is this circle or wheel of life considered to be of 360 degrees only? If we take a circle and start dividing it using the four elements and three attributes, all the logic can be observed.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">The circle itself, is considered the first element of space, since we must consume space in drawing a circle. In this space {or circle}, the four remaining elements and three attributes create the idea of time. The circle is divisible by the product of four elements multiplied by three attributes. This involves the belief that the three attributes exist in the circle. By moving three times, each element completes its revolution.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">So now we have the number 12 {3 x 4}. This division gave birth to our 12 months, and also to the 12 horas {1/2 of the day or Ahoratri}. We now have 360 degrees as well as 12 divisions. We can now further divide the wheel of time: there are 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) along with three attributes that divide the time in smaller portions. So this 27 + 3 = 30 is interpreted as 30 degrees or days of one part of the wheel (circle) or month. All of this is only half of a day. The night is yet unaccounted for. Therefore, we multiply these 30 degrees by 2. This gives us our reference of 60 seconds in a minute.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Thus the 360º x 30º = 10,800. Zero {0} is considered ‘Purna’ or complete. So we take out the last zeros and are left with 108. The idea of our total universe is represented by this number of 108. Offering 108, devotees believe that they are showing ultimate or complete respect to the Supreme.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">There are many other justifications but all can be traced back to this system. A few are explained below:</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">SHOSHU BUDDHIST <br />Followers use 108 beads in their malas. They implement the following formula: <br />6 x 3 x 2 x3 = 108 <br />6 senses [sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, thought] <br />3 aspects of time [past, present, future] <br />2 condition of heart [pure or impure] <br />3 possibilties of sentiment [like, dislike, indifference]</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">BUDDHA’S FOOTPRINT <br />All Buddhists accept the Buddha Footprint with its 108 Auspicious Illustrations. These areas are considered to have been marked on the Buddha’s left foot when his body was discovered.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">BUDDHISM <br />108 beads on the Hindu maalaa {rosary} <br />108 Arhats or Holy Ones</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">HINDUISM <br />108 Gopis {consorts} of Lord Krishna <br />108 Holy places for Vaishnavas <br />108 beads on the Japa maalaa {rosary} <br />108 Upanishads <br />108 Divyadeshes - Divine or Sacred Tirtha throughout India and Nepal <br />108 sacred water taps in Muktinath - Nepal</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">TANTRA SHASTRA <br />108 Pitha {Sacred Places} <br />The story goes that Lord Shiva was in deep and incessant meditation. His asceticism was creating great heat in the universe. All existence was in peril and Lord Brahma was deeply concerned. Lord Brahma asked the Mother of the Universe, Maa Shakti, to use Her strength and wile to seduce Lord Shiva. Maa Shakti agreed and was born as Sati, daughter of Shri Daksha. Lord Shiva was so entranced by Sati’s asceticism and extraordinary beauty that he took human form and they were married. Years later, at a feast, Sati’s father insulted Lord Shiva. Sati was so humiliated that she began a deep meditation which led to her immolation. Lord Shiva was completely heart broken. He reached into the sacrificial fire and pulled out as much of His beloved’s body as he could grab. As He ascended to heaven, bits of Sati’s body fell to earth. 108 bits to be precise! In time, these places were acknowledged and worshipped.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">SANATANA DHARMA <br />In a book by Khurana, the explanation closely mirrors the original Vedic justifications: <br />A circle has 360 degrees, which when multiplied by 60 gives us 21,600 minutes in a circle. 60 comes from the 60 'ghatis' which Sanatana Dharmiks believe in. One ghati is equal to 24 minutes and 60 ghatis come to 24 hours.</span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">One ghati is divided into 60 parts or 'palas'. <br />So the 60 ghatis multiplied by 60 palasa comes to 3,600. <br />This is further multiplied by 60 (becase a pala contains 60 vipalas) which gives us 21,600. <br />Half of this is for the day, and the other half for the night. So, 21,600 <br />divided by 2 gives us 10,800. For practical purposes, we use 108. </span></span></p>
<p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #333399;"><span style="color: #ffffff;">Using the number 108 helps us coordinate the rhythm of time and space & we remain in harmony with the spiritual powers of nature. <br /></span><br /></span></span></p>http://pranakishore.com/blog/magic_number_108_in_all_religionsSun, 29 Apr 2012 00:00:00 -0700